The study was conducted in May 2019 by the Austrian engineering company GENIO BAUPHYSIK gmbh: www.genio.gmbh (Gebäude – Energie – Innovation).
This company specialises in independent studies of thermal engineering that make particular use of dynamic numerical simulations, at the forefront of current technologies. The study follows the efficiency evaluation request of Heat4all infrared heaters made by the European construction giant STRABAG.
The study focuses on the analysis of a block of 6 residential apartments located in the south of Austria.
The objective of this study is to compare the energy efficiency and the economic profitability of the main heating systems of the housing currently on the market.
The heating methods compared are:
- Heat4All infrared heating (Austrian leading manufacturer of infrared heaters in Europe). Wall installation.
- Air/water heat pump + hydraulic underfloor heating. Wall installation.
- Low temperature water radiators. Wall installation.
- Water radiators (fan coil unit). Wall installation.
Thermal results (flow) calculated by the dynamic simulation is based on the following data:
- Technical features of the building (geometry, insulation, construction materials, characteristics of glazings, orientation, shading, air ventilation, etc.).
- Climate data (outside temperature, wind intensity and penetration into the building, solar gain according to the orientation, etc.).
- Energy data related to heating equipments used (radiant and convective characteristics, taking into account the operative temperature, etc.).
- Occupants data (variable occupancy rate based on the daytime, comfort temperature according to the standards, energy inputs related to the occupation and activity, clothing-related parameters).
These data provide a baseline of parameters that is varied day and night throughout the heating season (15/10-15/04) in order to collect the equivalent consumption of heat emitters.
Results of independent comparative study of multi-heating solutions 2019
Click on the image to see the details
- The heating solution by electric infrared heaters is not the most economical solution if one takes into account only the cost of energy. In that case it is the heat pump which takes the lead.
- However, if we take into account the global costs (initial capital investment, operating costs, maintenance costs, etc.) the HEAT4ALL electric heating by infrared is the most economic solution (-8%) of all the solutions studied (representative of the current market).
- Of course, the result is directly related to the intrinsic performances of the heaters of the Austrian manufacturer, leader in Europe. Infrared heaters of lower quality cannot in any case provide such results.
Clarification on the calculation assumptions:
- The room thermostat taken into account in the heating solution by infrared has basic technical characteristics. More efficient thermostats could improve the results of the infrared by few %.
- Heat pump: The COP (Coefficient of performance) used for the heat pump corresponds to a high-end material early in life. The equipment depreciation costs were calculated on the basis of a block of 6 apartments. Also, in the case of a single apartment equipped by the heat pump alone, the costs would have been higher.